Interdisciplinary Journal of Education Research 2021-09-17T11:59:02-04:00 Dr Bunmi I Omodan Open Journal Systems <p><strong><em>Interdisciplinary Journal of Education Research (IJER)</em></strong> is an internationally referred double-blind&nbsp;peer review&nbsp;"open access" Journal targeted towards rethinking Education Research and seeking to provide empirical, conceptual, or theoretical opinions on current educational issues.</p> The causes of ethical turpitude in schools: Evidence from four schools in Gauteng, South Africa 2021-05-06T03:34:26-04:00 Siphiwe Mthiyane Sipiwe Mudadigwa <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><em>This article reports the findings of a qualitative study that explored the causes of ethical turpitude in the four schools in Gauteng Province of South Africa. Semi-structured interviews were held with each school principal, eight heads of department and sixteen teachers. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the generated data. The findings suggest that most participants had pedestrian knowledge of ethical leadership and failed to demonstrate an appreciation of their agency role in promoting an ethical culture both in leadership and teaching despite the prescripts of the SACE Code of Professional Ethics and other laws governing their profession. Despite these negative findings, a minority of participants indicated how they promoted an ethical culture, integrity and honesty in their interactions with their learners. Amidst all the ethical challenges at the school level, the findings further suggest that there was minimal support by the Provincial Department of Education, SACE and teacher unions to equip the school management teams and teachers on ethical leadership and teaching. While numerous ethical turpitudes were unearthed, this study posits that the school management teams have agency and direct responsibility to address ethical challenges in their schools. While outside role-players have a supportive role to play, school management teams cannot give up and solely blame them for internal ethical turpitudes. </em></p> <div class="ms-editor-squiggler" style="color: initial; font: initial; font-feature-settings: initial; font-kerning: initial; font-optical-sizing: initial; font-variation-settings: initial; forced-color-adjust: initial; text-orientation: initial; text-rendering: initial; -webkit-font-smoothing: initial; -webkit-locale: initial; -webkit-text-orientation: initial; -webkit-writing-mode: initial; writing-mode: initial; zoom: initial; place-content: initial; place-items: initial; place-self: initial; alignment-baseline: initial; animation: initial; appearance: initial; aspect-ratio: initial; backdrop-filter: initial; backface-visibility: initial; background: initial; background-blend-mode: initial; baseline-shift: initial; block-size: initial; border-block: initial; border: initial; border-radius: initial; border-collapse: initial; 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flex: initial; flex-flow: initial; float: initial; flood-color: initial; flood-opacity: initial; grid: initial; grid-area: initial; height: 0px; hyphens: initial; image-orientation: initial; image-rendering: initial; inline-size: initial; inset-block: initial; inset-inline: initial; isolation: initial; letter-spacing: initial; lighting-color: initial; line-break: initial; list-style: initial; margin-block: initial; margin: initial; margin-inline: initial; marker: initial; mask: initial; mask-type: initial; max-block-size: initial; max-height: initial; max-inline-size: initial; max-width: initial; min-block-size: initial; min-height: initial; min-inline-size: initial; min-width: initial; mix-blend-mode: initial; object-fit: initial; object-position: initial; offset: initial; opacity: initial; order: initial; origin-trial-test-property: initial; orphans: initial; outline: initial; outline-offset: initial; overflow-anchor: initial; overflow-wrap: initial; overflow: initial; overscroll-behavior-block: initial; overscroll-behavior-inline: initial; overscroll-behavior: initial; padding-block: initial; padding: initial; padding-inline: initial; page: initial; page-orientation: initial; paint-order: initial; perspective: initial; perspective-origin: initial; pointer-events: initial; position: initial; quotes: initial; r: initial; resize: initial; ruby-position: initial; rx: initial; ry: initial; scroll-behavior: initial; scroll-margin-block: initial; scroll-margin: initial; scroll-margin-inline: initial; scroll-padding-block: initial; scroll-padding: initial; scroll-padding-inline: initial; scroll-snap-align: initial; scroll-snap-stop: initial; scroll-snap-type: initial; shape-image-threshold: initial; shape-margin: initial; shape-outside: initial; shape-rendering: initial; size: initial; speak: initial; stop-color: initial; stop-opacity: initial; stroke: initial; stroke-dasharray: initial; stroke-dashoffset: initial; stroke-linecap: initial; stroke-linejoin: initial; stroke-miterlimit: initial; stroke-opacity: initial; stroke-width: initial; tab-size: initial; table-layout: initial; text-align: initial; text-align-last: initial; text-anchor: initial; text-combine-upright: initial; text-decoration: initial; text-decoration-skip-ink: initial; text-indent: initial; text-overflow: initial; text-shadow: initial; text-size-adjust: initial; text-transform: initial; text-underline-offset: initial; text-underline-position: initial; touch-action: initial; transform: initial; transform-box: initial; transform-origin: initial; transform-style: initial; transition: initial; user-select: initial; vector-effect: initial; vertical-align: initial; visibility: initial; -webkit-app-region: initial; border-spacing: initial; -webkit-border-image: initial; -webkit-box-align: initial; -webkit-box-decoration-break: initial; -webkit-box-direction: initial; -webkit-box-flex: initial; -webkit-box-ordinal-group: initial; -webkit-box-orient: initial; -webkit-box-pack: initial; -webkit-box-reflect: initial; -webkit-highlight: initial; -webkit-hyphenate-character: initial; -webkit-line-break: initial; -webkit-line-clamp: initial; -webkit-mask-box-image: initial; -webkit-mask: initial; -webkit-mask-composite: initial; -webkit-perspective-origin-x: initial; -webkit-perspective-origin-y: initial; -webkit-print-color-adjust: initial; -webkit-rtl-ordering: initial; -webkit-ruby-position: initial; -webkit-tap-highlight-color: initial; -webkit-text-combine: initial; -webkit-text-decorations-in-effect: initial; -webkit-text-emphasis: initial; -webkit-text-emphasis-position: initial; -webkit-text-fill-color: initial; -webkit-text-security: initial; -webkit-text-stroke: initial; -webkit-transform-origin-x: initial; -webkit-transform-origin-y: initial; -webkit-transform-origin-z: initial; -webkit-user-drag: initial; -webkit-user-modify: initial; white-space: initial; widows: initial; width: initial; will-change: initial; word-break: initial; word-spacing: initial; x: initial; y: initial; z-index: initial;">&nbsp;</div> 2021-05-04T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Siphiwe Mthiyane, Sipiwe Mudadigwa Remuneration and Job Performance of Teachers in Government Aided Secondary Schools in Western Uganda 2021-05-06T03:34:23-04:00 Dinensio Kiyundo Zikanga Blessing Ijeoma Anumaka Maurice Bakaluba Tamale: Wilson Mugizi <p><em>The study investigated the relationship between remuneration and job performance of teachers in government-aided secondary schools in Western Uganda. Remuneration was studied in terms of basic pay, income security schemes, and bonuses and allowances. Teachers’ job performance was considered in terms of classroom teaching, management of students, discipline and regularity and interpersonal relations. The study adopted a cross-sectional research design using the quantitative approach on a sample of 333 teachers. Data were collected using both a questionnaire. Descriptive results revealed that job performance of teachers high and remuneration moderate. Inferential analysis showed that while income security schemes had a positive and significant influence on teachers' job performance, basic pay had a positive but insignificant influence on teachers' job performance, and bonuses and allowances had a negative insignificant influence on teachers' job performance. It was concluded that low remuneration to teachers impedes high job performance, especially when basic pay is low and there is a lack of bonuses and allowances. Existence of income security schemes increases the job performance of teachers. Therefore, it was recommended that stakeholders involved in the management of schools such as Government, headteachers, and Boards of governors, devise means of enhancing the remuneration of teachers. Teachers should be given bonuses for exceeding performance and allowances when they do extra work. The pension plan and social welfare benefits should also be made attractive to increase the job performance of teachers. &nbsp;</em></p> 2021-05-04T13:52:50-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Dinensio Kiyundo Zikanga, Blessing Ijeoma Anumaka, Maurice Bakaluba Tamale:, Wilson Mugizi Teachers’ Awareness and Competence in the Switch from Classroom-Based to Online Teaching During COVID-19 Pandemic in Lagos, Nigeria 2021-05-06T03:34:21-04:00 Oluwaseyi Emmanuel Alasoluyi <p><em>In the COVID-19 era, success in online curriculum delivery requires expertise, skills and competence. The study appraised the teachers’ awareness and competence in the switch from classroom-based to online teaching during the COVID-19 pandemic in Lagos Mainland secondary schools, Nigeria. The study examined teachers’ awareness and competence level in the switch from classroom-based to online teaching using a descriptive survey research design. Random sampling was used to determine the sample size, which comprises 378 public secondary school teachers. A self-developed questionnaire was used to generate data. Cronbach Alpha method was used to determine the reliability of the instrument, and the pilot study yielded a coefficient of 0.83, which was deemed high enough to make the instrument reliable for the study. Frequency counts, mean, and standard deviation were used to analyse the data obtained, while chi-square (χ2) was used to analysed the null hypotheses at a 0.05 level of significance. Findings revealed that teachers are reasonably aware of the switch from classroom-based to online teaching. However, the results demonstrated that teachers have low competence due to a lack of technological resources and technical know-how. Recommendations were made, among others, that teachers should keep up with the latest developments in the teaching field via development programmes. More importantly, teachers should be well-versed in the use of digital to accomplish instructional objectives efficiently, confidently, particularly during COVID-19 when classroom-based instruction was suspended.</em></p> 2021-05-06T01:13:32-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Oluwaseyi Emmanuel Alasoluyi Impact of Effectiveness of Early Childhood Education on Students Learning Outcomes in Pakistan 2021-05-18T03:29:27-04:00 Asifa Nawaz Ijaz Ashraf Aisha Siddique <p><em>Learning occurs faster in the early years of life. Early Childhood Education (ECE) programs generally entail an acquisition of concepts, skills, and attitudes that lay the foundation for school readiness. This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of ECE on students learning outcomes and highlight problems related to the implementation of ECE program in District Faisalabad of Punjab province, Pakistan. All the teachers managing these ECE centres in Government schools of District Faisalabad were the population for the study. There were 313 ECE schools, and a sample of 173 ECE teachers was selected randomly (one teacher from each school). A well-structured questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected data was analysed through SPSS, and the results were interpreted. It was concluded that a lot of challenges existed. These include untrained ECE teacher, lack of financial resources, lack of learning and physical facilities, continuous mentoring and evaluation, and lack of awareness of the significance of ECE among people. These also have a significant influence on the effectiveness of the ECE program. In Consequence, the effectiveness of ECE programme has a significantly positive impact on students learning outcomes. It was recommended that emphasis should be placed to improve the provision of ECE and to address the problems related to its implementation. And That government should introduce a proper system for effective monitoring and evaluation to maintain a conducive environment for learning and for complete mainstreaming of the ECE program.</em></p> 2021-05-18T03:25:42-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Asifa Nawaz, Ijaz Ashraf , Aisha Siddique Translation Quality Assessment (TQA) of Food and Drugs: The Role of Student Translator in National Development 2021-05-20T03:31:01-04:00 Adeyola Opaluwah <p style="line-height: 115%;">The role of language in facilitating national development can never be over-emphasised because the national understanding and cohesion that run on the wheels of language create opportunities for sustainable development. An integral aspect of language that typifies this is Translation which serves as a key contributing force towards the consolidation of understanding while creating opportunities for personal, group and national development. The study and practice of French Translation now increasingly offer more opportunities for creative and constructive engagement of Nigerian youth as student translators empowered to meet French Translation/Interpretation needs in canned/preserved food and drug sectors of the country. Suffice it to add, these initiatives carry the prospects of reducing Nigeria's double-digit unemployment rate, curb youth restiveness, banditry and militancy, provide credible alternatives to crime, prostitution and illegal migration, thereby contributing to national development in quantum leaps and bounds. This paper aspires to initiate ways in which the teaching of French Translation in Nigeria Universities can include Translation Quality Assessment (TQA) with a view to unleashing the productive capacity of Nigerian translation students as well as channel their energies towards worthy ventures in sustainable growth and national development through TQA of the French Translation in canned/preserved foods and drugs. The paper provides fresh insights into how Nigerian universities can increase their contributions to national development by maximally leveraging on TQA of French Translations of canned/ preserved foods and drugs to access funding for initiatives that fall under current donor mappings.&nbsp;</p> 2021-05-20T03:29:12-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Adeyola Opaluwah Senior high school students’ usage of time and its impact on their academic achievement in Northern Ghana 2021-05-29T02:31:34-04:00 Peter Yidana <p>Research studies have investigated the influence of institutional characteristics on student academic achievement. However, relatively little research focuses on time utilisation and its impact on student academic achievement. The current study investigated students’ utilisation of time in public senior high schools in the Northern Region of Ghana. The study aimed to determine how students utilisation of time on self-study, group study, religious activities, and classroom instructional activities predicted their academic achievements. A total of 500 students sampled from 7 public senior high schools in the Northern Region of Ghana participated in the study. The research design employed was the cross-sectional survey research design. The instrument used to collect the data was a questionnaire. Analysis was done using multiple regression analysis with the aid of the SPSS (Version 16) software. The results suggest that the time students spent attending classes positively and significantly influences their academic achievement. Class attendance, group studies and self-studies times were found to be positively related. The study recommends that students group study and self-study activities should be made compulsory and that adequate time should be allotted within study hours for students to engage in meaningful self-study and group study activities.</p> 2021-05-29T02:29:16-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Peter Yidana Adopting the ICT Innovation to Administrative and Activity Procedures in a University 2021-06-08T04:36:59-04:00 George S. Oreku <p>Information Communication Technology (ICT) has made performing administrative tasks more convenient for organisations. This paper discusses the contribution of ICT innovations to administrative effectiveness with respect to the Open University of Tanzania (OUT) and, specifically, their examination process. An analytical study guided by one hypothesis has been applied in this paper to understand the utilisation of ICT at OUT and framed within the timeframe of the COVID-19 pandemic. The hypothesis states that there is no significant difference in the mean response of students, lecturers, and administrators on the effectiveness of ICT in the Online Oral Examination System (OREX) and administrative process of the OUT. The use of both primary data collected through administered questionnaires to the university population and secondary data sourced from existing literature aided in determining the findings. The results revealed that ICT innovations could be effective if well used in university activities and more suitable if adapted in an innovative way for online admission and a perfect fit for online examination system such as OREX, which was developed as a response to the pandemic. The study also inveterate that the students, lecturers and senior administrative Staff (Registry) had very similar responses on the effectiveness of ICT innovation on the administrative process and academics of the OUT. It was recommended, among others, that the university should mobilise resources towards the provision of facilities and training of its ICT personnel for more relevant innovations, particular for online examination processes such as OREX.</p> 2021-06-08T04:33:46-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 George S. Oreku Teaching and Learning of Chemistry: The Hybridity of Third Space Approach 2021-08-15T07:26:32-04:00 Royda Kampamba <p><em>This article explored diversity and hybridity in the third space as a teaching resource. Students bring to the classroom or third space their diverse sociocultural issues, knowledge levels of chemistry, and socioeconomic status. Educators also bring to the third space their university knowledge and culture. Hence, a classroom or third space is a hybrid. The intersection of the students’ activity systems and educators’ activity systems created a third space. Activity systems are social practices that include the norms, values, divisions of labour, and community goals. The study intended to explore the negotiations by chemistry educators and first-year students in teaching-learning of acids-bases reactions. It is a topic that most students experience challenges from secondary school to graduate level. Acids-bases are one of the threshold concepts. Qualitative research was employed in the study. Data were collected through classroom observations. A thematic approach was employed to analyse data. Five chemistry educators and their classes were purposely sampled. Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) was employed to unpack group dynamics in a Zambian university. Interactions in the learning spaces generated constraints, tensions, diversity, and affordances for both educators and students. The findings suggest that hybridity may be a resource in teaching acids-bases threshold concepts. Educators should understand students’ knowledge and cultural diversities. Researchers can investigate how students’ different acids-bases knowledge levels can promote success in chemistry</em>.</p> 2021-08-15T07:21:22-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Royda Kampamba Exploring Undergraduate Research Projects Success Factors in Muni University, Uganda 2021-08-15T07:26:34-04:00 Nicholas Nkamwesiga Phelix Businge Mbabazi Ritah Nafuna <p><em>This paper presents the success factors for undergraduate research projects (URPs)</em> <em>at Muni University. The objectives of the study were to determine the relevant skills required for the success of undergraduate research projects and investigate the roles of students, supervisors and faculty towards the success of URPs. Questionnaires were administered to a population of 70 final-year students. SPSS-v.21 program was used to analyse the data collected. The research instrument was reliable at Chronbach’s alpha 0.9038. Results showed that research, research environment, research management, personal effectiveness, communication, networking and teamwork skills are paramount to the success of URPs. The study found out that the key stakeholders (students, supervisors and faculty) perform their roles throughout the project period. However, there’s a need to have a mechanism for project tracking, filing complaints, and having URPs externally examined among others.</em></p> 2021-08-15T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Nicholas Nkamwesiga, Phelix Businge Mbabazi, Ritah Nafuna University Infrastructure Quality and Students Engagement at a Private University in Uganda 2021-09-17T11:59:02-04:00 Wilson Mugizi <p>This study assessed the influence of university infrastructure quality on students’ engagement at the western branch of a private University in Bushenyi District, Uganda. Particularly, the study assessed the influence of lecture rooms infrastructure, university-level infrastructure and university utilities. Using the positivist approach, the study was guided by the correlational research design, collecting data using a questionnaire on a sample of 183 students. Descriptive analysis revealed that student engagement was high, lecture rooms’ infrastructure and university utilities were good. However, the students rated university-level infrastructure as fair. Regression analysis showed that lecture rooms’ infrastructure and university utilities were significant positive predictors of students’ engagement. However, university-level infrastructure had a positive but insignificant influence on students’ engagement. Thus, the quality of lecture rooms’ infrastructure is imperative, university utilities are essential and improved university-level infrastructure is a requirement for enhancing students’ engagement. Therefore, it was recommended that universities emphasise providing quality to classroom infrastructure, improve university-level infrastructure, and establish quality university utilities.</p> 2021-09-17T11:43:32-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Mugizi Wilson