Remuneration and Job Performance of Teachers in Government Aided Secondary Schools in Western Uganda

  • Dinensio Kiyundo Zikanga 1College of Education Kampala International University
  • Blessing Ijeoma Anumaka College of Education Kampala International University, Kampala
  • Maurice Bakaluba Tamale College of Education Kampala International University, Kampala
  • Wilson Mugizi Kyambogo University, Kampala Uganda
Keywords: Allowance, Basic pay, Bonuses, Income security schemes, Job performance


The study investigated the relationship between remuneration and job performance of teachers in government-aided secondary schools in Western Uganda. Remuneration was studied in terms of basic pay, income security schemes, and bonuses and allowances. Teachers’ job performance was considered in terms of classroom teaching, management of students, discipline and regularity and interpersonal relations. The study adopted a cross-sectional research design using the quantitative approach on a sample of 333 teachers. Data were collected using both a questionnaire. Descriptive results revealed that job performance of teachers high and remuneration moderate. Inferential analysis showed that while income security schemes had a positive and significant influence on teachers' job performance, basic pay had a positive but insignificant influence on teachers' job performance, and bonuses and allowances had a negative insignificant influence on teachers' job performance. It was concluded that low remuneration to teachers impedes high job performance, especially when basic pay is low and there is a lack of bonuses and allowances. Existence of income security schemes increases the job performance of teachers. Therefore, it was recommended that stakeholders involved in the management of schools such as Government, headteachers, and Boards of governors, devise means of enhancing the remuneration of teachers. Teachers should be given bonuses for exceeding performance and allowances when they do extra work. The pension plan and social welfare benefits should also be made attractive to increase the job performance of teachers.  


Metrics Loading ...

Author Biography

Dinensio Kiyundo Zikanga, 1College of Education Kampala International University


Kampala International University, Kampala Uganda 


Abdullah, A. A., & Wan, H. L. (2013). Relationships of non-monetary incentives, job satisfaction and employee job performance. International Review of Management and Business Research, 2(4), 1085- 1091.
Afful-Broni, A. (2012). Relationship between motivation and job performance at the University of Mines and Technology, Tarkwa, Ghana: Leadership Lessons. Creative Education, 3(03), 309-314.
Alam, M.S., Saeed, A., Sahabuddin, M., & Akter, S. (2013). Relationship between employee recognition and employee contribution in service Industry. International Journal of Business and Marketing Management, 1(1), 1-8.
Amah, E., Nwuche, C., A., & Chukuigwe, N. (2013). Effective reward and incentive scheme for effective organisations. Research Journal of Finance and Accounting, 4(13), 73-79.
Amin, M., ullah Shah, R., Ayaz, M., & Atta, M. A. (2013). Teachers’job performance at secondary level in Khyber Pakhyunkhwa, Pakistan. Gomal University Journal of Research, 29(2), 101-104.
Armstrong, M. (2007). A handbook of employee reward management and practice (2nd Ed). London, UK: Kogan Page.
Auma, D. (2015, September 23). Education in Uganda. Alliance for African Assistance. Retrieved from:
Chinyio, E., Suresh, S., &Salisu, J. B. (2018). The impacts of monetary rewards on public sector employees in construction: A case of Jigawa state in Nigeria. Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, 16(1), 125-142.
Chirumbolo, A., & Areni, A. (2005). The influence of job insecurity on job performance and absenteeism: the moderating effects of work attitudes. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, 31(4), 65-71.
Chong, S., & Ho, P. (2009). Quality teaching and learning: a quality assurance framework for initial teacher preparation programmes. International journal of management in education, 3(3-4), 302-314.
Chucwunenye, I. O., & Ambgare D. (2010) Staff welfare and productivity in Patani local government council, Delta State Nigeria. Journal of Economics and International Finance 2(12), 313-320
Darling-Hammond L (2010). Evaluating teacher effectiveness: How teacher performance assessments can measure and improve teaching. Report by Centre for American Progress. Retrieved from atingteacher-effectiveness/
Dartey-Baah, K., &Amoako, G. K. (2011). Application of Frederick Herzberg’s Two-Factor theory in assessing and understanding employee motivation at work: A Ghanaian Perspective. European Journal of Business and Management, 3(9), 1-8.
Doherty, G. (2012). Quality assurance in education, quality assurance and management.InTech, Retrieved from: http://ww quality assurance -and -management/quality-assurance-in education
Hameed, A., Ramzan, M., Zubair, H. M. K., Ali, G. & Arslan, M. (2014). Impact of compensation on employee performance (Empirical evidence from banking sector of Pakistan). International Journal of Business and Social Science. 5(2), 302-309
Hanushek, E. A., & Ettema, E. (2017). Defining productivity in education: Issues and illustrations. The American Economist, 62(2), 165-183. 34516688207
Heneman III, H. G., & Schwab, D. P. (1985). Pay satisfaction: Its multidimensional nature and measurement. International journal of Psychology, 20(1), 129-141. 00207598508247727.
Ibrar, M., & Khan O. (2015).The impact of reward on employee performance (A case study of Malakand private school). International Letters of Social and Humanistic Sciences, 52, 95-103.
King-McKenzie, E., Bantwini, B., &Bogan, B. (2013).Supporting teachers to enhance students’ success in the USA and South Africa. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 3(15), 25-33.
Krejcie, R. V., & Morgan, D. W. (1970). Determining sample size for research activities. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 30, 607-610.
Kwak, J., & Lee, E. (2009). An empirical study of “fringe benefits” and performance of the Korean firms. International Journal of Business and Management, 4(2), 3-9. 5539/ijbm.v4n2p3
Lee, T. J. (2017). Relationship between intrinsic job satisfaction, extrinsic job satisfaction, and turnover intentions among internal auditors (PhD Dissertation, Walden University, Washington, USA).
Luchak, A. A., & Gellatly, I. R. (2002). How pension accrual affects job satisfaction. Journal of Labor Research, 23(1), 145-162.
Lucky, E. O. I., Minai, M. S., & Hamzah, A. R. (2014). Employee job security affecting performance in a multi-ethnic environment. International Journal of Business Performance Management, 15(4), 277-294.
Ma, B., Liu, S., Liu, D., & Wang, H. (2016). Job security and work performance in Chinese employees: The mediating role of organisational identification. International Journal of Psychology, 51(2), 123-129.
Mabagala, S. (2017). Prevalence of professional misconduct in Nzega District, Tanzania public secondary schools. African Journal of Teacher Education, 5(1), 1-15.
Malunda, P., Onen, D., & Musaazi, J. C. S., & Oonyu, J. (2016). Instructional supervision and the pedagogical practices of secondary school teachers in Uganda. Journal of Education and Practice, 7(30), 177-187.
Marzano, R. J., Frontier, T, & Livingston, D. (2011). Effective supervision: Supporting the art and science of teaching. Alexandria, USA: ASCD.
Mathison, S., & Ross, E. W. (Eds.). (2008). Battleground schools. Westport, CT, USA: Greenwood Press.
Moorthy, M. K., Durai, T., Chelliah, L., Sien, C. S., Leong, L. C., Kai, N. Z., ... &Teng, W. Y. (2012). A Study on the retirement planning behaviour of working individuals in Malaysia. International Journal of Academic Research in Economics and Management Sciences, 1(2), 54-72.
Mugizi, W., Bakkabulindi, F. E. K., & Bisaso, R. (2015a). A framework for the study of employee commitment. Makerere Journal of Higher Education, 7(2), 15-47.
Mugizi, W., Dafiewhare, A. O., Manyange, M., & Zikanga, D. K. (2020). Talent development practices and work engagement of in-service teachers at a private university in Western Uganda. Journal of Educational Research and Reviews, 8(5), 57-66. doi: 10.33495/jerr_ v8i5.20.125
Mugizi, W., Mujuni, B. T., & Dafiewhare, O. A. (2019). Ethical leadership and job performance of teachers in secondary schools in Kyabugimbi Sub-County in Bushenyi District in Southwestern Uganda. Direct Research Journal of Education and Vocational Studies, 1(1), 11-22. 3497120
Nabi, N., Islam, M., & Dip, T. M., & Hossain, A. A. (2017). Impact of motivation on employee performances: A case study of Karmasangsthan Bank Limited, Bangladesh. Arabian Journal of Business and Management Review, 7(293), 1-8.
Namara, R. B., & Kasaija, J. (2016). Teachers’ protest movements and prospects for teachers improved welfare in Uganda. Journal of Education and Training Studies, 4(5), 149-159.
Njanja, W. L., Maina, R. N., Kibet, L. K. & Njagi, K. (2013). Effect of reward on employee performance: A case of Kenya Power and Lighting Company Ltd., Nakuru, Kenya. International Journal of Business and Management, 8(21), 41-49. m.v8n21p41
Odunlami, I. B., & Asabi, O. M. (2014). Compensation management and employees performance in the manufacturing sector: A case study of a reputable organisation in the food and beverage industry. International Journal of Managerial Studies and Research (IJMSR), 2(9), 108-117.
Ojeleye, Y. C. (2017). The impact of remuneration on employees' performance (A study of Abdul Gusau Polytechnic, Talata-Mafara and State College of Education Maru, Zamfara State). Arabian Journal of Business and Management Review (Nigerian Chapter), 4(2), 34-43.
Olubusayoa, F. H., Ibidunni A. S., & Olokundun, M. (2014). Incentives packages and employees’ attitudes to work: a study of selected government parastatals in Ogun State, South-West, Nigeria. International Journal of Research in Business and Social Science, 3(1), 63-74.
Olurotimi, O. J., Asad, K. W., & Abdulrauf, W. A. (2015). Motivational factors and teachers commitment in public secondary schools in Mbale Municipality. Journal of Education and Practice, 6(15), 117-122.
Onu, C. A., Akinlabi, B. H., & Fakunmoju, S. K. (2014). Motivation and job performance of non-academic staff in private universities in Nigeria (Babcock University as a Case Study).Global Advanced Research Journal of Management and Business Studies (GARJMBS, 3(2), 039-054
Osibanjo, A. O., Adeniji, A. A., Falola, H. O., & Heirsmac, P. T. (2014). Compensation packages: a strategic tool for employees' performance and retention. Leonardo Journal of Sciences, (25), 65-84.
Park, S., & Sturman, M. C. (2016). Evaluating form and functionality of pay‐for‐performance plans: The relative incentive and sorting effects of merit pay, bonuses, and long‐term incentives. Human Resource Management, 55(4), 697-719.
Peene, N. (2009). Occupational commitment as a moderating variable insecure times: Job insecurity and its consequences on organisational commitment. Tilburg University Human Resource Studies. Retrieved from:
Pretorius, S. G. (2014). An education system’s perspective on turning around South Africa’s dysfunctional schools. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 5(15), 348-358.
Rukundo, A., & Magambo, J. (2013). Professional impotence: Impact of alcohol abuse on secondary schoolteachers in Uganda. International Journal of Alcohol and Drug Research, 2(2), 69-74.
Saani, A. J. (2013). Influence of compensation and supervision on private basic school teachers work performance in Ashaiman Municipality. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 4(17), 64-69.
Subroto, W. T. (2005). Income and implications of teacher performance to improve the quality of education in the elementary school of Surabaya. International Journal of Business, Humanities and Technology, 3(2), 112-121.
Symeonidis, V. (2015).The status of teachers and the teaching profession: A study. Brussels, Belgium: Education International Research Institute.
Talemwa, M. (2016, June 20). Uganda: Why teachers are lukewarm about their recent pay increase. The Observer. Available at:
Tan, T. H., &Waheed, A. (2011). Herzberg's motivation-hygiene theory and job satisfaction in the Malaysian retail sector: The mediating effect of love of money. Asian Academy of Management Journal, 169(1), 73-94
Tornikoski, C. (2011). Fostering expatriate affective commitment: A total reward perspective. Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, 18(2), 214-235. 13527601111126030
Torrington, D., Earnshaw, J., & Ritchie, E. (2003). Tackling under-performance in teachers. London, UK: Psychology Press.
Uganda National Examination Board [UNEB]. (2015) Annual assessment report. Kampala, Uganda: UNEB.
Vermooten, N., Malan, J., & Boonzaier, B. (2020). Variance in employee engagement: A qualitative analysis amongst public school teachers in the Cape Winelands education district. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, 46. a1568. sajip.v46i0.1568
Waga, R. A., & Simatwa, E. M. W. (2014). Hygiene and motivational factors that influence job satisfaction and dissatisfaction among teachers of public primary schools in Kisumu East and West Sub counties, Kenya: An analytical study. Educational Research, 5(8), 296-314.
Ward, M., Penny, A., & Read, T. (2006). Education reform in Uganda-1997 to 2004: Reflections on policy, partnership, strategy and implementation (p. 2006). London: Department for International Development.
Wasiu, B. O., & Adebajo, A. A. (2014). Reward system and employees performance in Lagos State: A study of selected public secondary schools. Kuwait Chapter of Arabian Journal of Business and Management Review, 3(8), 14-28.
Wekesa, J. N., &Nyaroo, S. (2013). Effect of compensation on performance of public secondary school teachers in Eldoret Municipality Kenya. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 3(6), 2250-3153.
Xinping, X., Shafi, K., Hua, L., & Nazeer, A. (2015). Effect of salary, training and motivation on job performance of employees Zahra Idrees. American Journal of Business, Economics and Management, 3(2), 55-58.
How to Cite
Zikanga, D. K., Anumaka, B. I., Tamale:, M. B., & Mugizi, W. (2021). Remuneration and Job Performance of Teachers in Government Aided Secondary Schools in Western Uganda. Interdisciplinary Journal of Education Research , 3(2), 10-22.